COURSE CATALOG 

ENGLISH

ENG I:                        English I (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:                9                                                                                                        

1 credit (2 semesters)

English is a multi-dimensional study of our language. Students will have opportunities to integrate composition, reading, spelling, vocabulary, and grammar into daily lessons. Students will, through detailed, progressive lessons, develop proficient reading habits, become better spellers, be well prepared for formalized testing with an increased knowledge of vocabulary words, and apply grammar rules to home writing skills via a variety of composition projects throughout the year. Students will also grow in their communication skills through literary analysis. 

ENG II:                      English II (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:              English I

Grade Level:               10                                                                                                       

1 credit (2 semesters)

English 10 provides students with opportunities to write in variety of forms and genres, to investigate issues of concern and relevance, to refine their research and presentation skills, and to study and respond to American literature through time and across cultures.

ENG III:                     English III (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             English I & II

Grade Level:               11                                                                                                       

1 credit (2 semesters)

Junior English provides the opportunity for students to practice, polish, and extend their skills in critical reading, research and analysis, oral presentations, and composition while exploring British texts for each major literary period.

ENG IV:                     English IV

Pre-Requisite:             English I, II & III

Grade Level:               12                                                                               

1 credit (2 semesters)

Senior English provides the opportunity for students to practice, polish, and extend their skills in critical reading, research and analysis, oral presentations, and formal and informal composition.

ENG IV*:                   English IV (Dual Credit) (ENG 201 & ENG 102)

Pre-Requisite:             English I, II & III; 3.5 GPA or higher

Grade Level:               12                                                                                           

1 credit (2 semesters)

English 201 Introduction to Literature: Students will read and respond to a variety of literary works including fiction, poetry, and drama; become familiar with representative authors and their writing style, and develop original methods of evaluating and analyzing works of literature.

English 102 Experiences in Writing: This course focuses on helping students develop effective processes for writing in multiple genres, including research-based academic projects and creative works. Students will learn techniques for generating ideas; giving and receiving feedback; finding, evaluating and integrating sources; adapting rhetorical strategies for audience and context; revising; and editing.

 

MATH

ALG I:                        Algebra I (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9                                                                                                         

1 credit (2 semesters)

This introductory algebra course provides the foundation for more advanced mathematics.  It develops the algebraic concepts and processes used to solve a variety of real world and mathematical problems.  Topics covered are algebraic representations of quantities and relationships, solving of one and two-variable equations and inequalities, linear functions, systems of equations, exponents, radicals, polynomials, and quadratic equations.

GEOM:                      Geometry (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             Algebra I

Grade Level:               9 or 10                                                                                                

1 credit (2 semesters)

The fundamental purpose of the course is to formalize and extend students’ geometric experiences from the middle grades.  Students explore more complex geometric situations and deepen their explanations of geometric relationships, moving towards formal mathematical arguments.  This course provides a rigorous, in-depth study of topics and concepts from Algebra 1 with the inclusion of congruency and similarity of two-dimensional figures, area and volume of two- and three-dimensional figures, coordinate geometry, and trigonometry.

 ALG II:                      Algebra II (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             Algebra I

Grade Level:               10 or 11                                                                                                          

1 credit (2 semesters)

Building on their work with linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, students extend their repertoire of functions to include polynomial, rational, radical, absolute value, and inverse functions.  Students work closely with the expressions that define the functions and continue to expand and hone their skills to model situations and to solve equations including solving quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers and solving exponential equation using the properties of logarithms.

PRE CALC:              Pre-Calculus (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             Algebra I, Geometry & Algebra II

Grade Level:               11 or 12                                                                                                          

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course reviews the functions studied in Algebra 2 (polynomial, rational, radical, exponential, absolute value, logarithmic, and inverse) with greater detail and application including piecewise functions.  The concepts of vectors, sequences and series, trigonometry, polar coordinates and equations, parametric equations, conic sections, and analytic geometry are also developed.  Students will learn the skills necessary to reason abstractly and quantitatively when solving application problems.  This course is concept driven and examines concepts analytically, numerically, and graphically.

AP CALC:                 Calculus (AP) 

Pre-Requisite:             Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II & Pre-Calculus; 3.5 GPA or higher

Grade Level:               12                                                                                                       

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course deepens students’ understanding of the algebraic, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions of Pre-Calculus and introduces the techniques of differential and integral calculus.  The course develops algebraic and transcendental functions and the general theory and techniques of calculus.  Concepts are explored graphically, numerically, analytically, and verbally.  The skills and concepts of limits, derivatives, and integrals for polynomial, rational, radical, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions are studied.  Applications include the Mean Value Theorem, optimization, related rates, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, differential equations, area, and volume.

STATISTICS:           Statistics (AP)

Pre-Requisite:             Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II; 3.5 GPA or higher

Grade Level:               11 or 12                                                          

1 credit (2 semesters)

The purpose of the AP course in statistics is to introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes: 1. Exploring Data: Describing patterns and departures from patterns 2. Sampling and Experimentation: Planning and conducting a study 3. Anticipating Patterns: Exploring random phenomena using probability and simulation 4. Statistical Inference: Estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses.

MATH MOD:            Math Models

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               12                                                                                                                   

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course provides a path for students to succeed in future mathematics courses and prepares them for various post-secondary choices. Students learn to apply mathematics through experiences in personal finance, science, engineering, fine arts, and social sciences. Students use algebraic, graphical, and geometric reasoning to recognize patterns and structure, model information, solve problems, and communicate solutions.

 

SCIENCE

BIO:                            Biology (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9                                                                                                         

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course emphasizes the continuity and diversity of God’s creation through the study of the kingdoms of life, cell structure and function, genetics, biochemistry, human anatomy and physiology, evolution, taxonomy, botany, and ecology.  

CHEM:                      Chemistry (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:              Biology

Grade Level:               10

1 credit (2 semesters)

In Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include characteristics of matter, use of the Periodic Table, development of atomic theory and chemical bonding, chemical stoichiometry, gas laws, solution chemistry, thermochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

PHYSICS:                 Physics

Pre-Requisite:              Biology, Chemistry

Grade Level:               11

1 credit (2 semesters)

Physics is an algebra based course that utilize right triangle trigonometry to the introduce to the basic physical concepts of our universe which includes mechanics, dynamics, kinematics, circular/angular motion, planetary motion, waves, optics, fluids, electricity, and modern physics.

AP PHYSIC:             Physics (AP)

Pre-Requisite:              Biology, Chemistry; 3.5 GPA or higher

Grade Level:               11

1 credit (2 semesters)

AP Physics is an algebra based course that utilize right triangle trigonometry to the introduce to the basic physical concepts of our universe which includes mechanics, dynamics, kinematics, circular/angular motion, planetary motion, waves, optics, fluids, electricity, and modern physics.  These concepts are linked and presented in the context of the AP physics 1 topics and the resulting end of course for credit examination that occurs at the end of the spring semester.

ENV SCI:                   Environmental Science

Grade Level:               12

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course is designed to immerse students in the physical, biological, and earth systems sciences that shape our environment.  Scientific concepts, principles and modern science practices allow students to analyze environmental issues, both natural and human induced, and engage in evidence-based decision making in real world contexts.  Scientifically literate students will possess the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity.   

ANAT PHYS:            Anatomy & Physiology (Honors)

Pre-Requisite:              3.5 GPA or higher

Grade Level                12

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course presents a systemic approach to the study of the human body. Presentation begins with an introduction of anatomical terminology and an overview of cellular processes and tissue classification. Students then learn the gross and microscopic anatomy of the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, urinary and reproductive. The laboratory component of the course generally parallels and reinforces lecture concepts through the use of models, histological slides, skeletal materials and dissections.

 

SOCIAL STUDIES

 W GEO:                     World Geography (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9                                                                                                         

1 credit (2 semesters)

Geography is the study of how people change the land and how the land affects people. During the first quarter students will learn the basic concepts needed to understand the countries and regions of the world. Next will be a study of North America and the U.S. The rest of the year will deal with other regions of the world; for example: Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Europe, etc. We will examine the world regions using the five themes of geography analysis: location, place, human/environment interaction, movement and region.

W HIST:                    World History (Pre-AP)

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:               10

1 credit (2 semesters)

World History is a year-long required survey course that explores the key events and global historical developments since the ancient world that have shaped the world we live in today. The scope of Modern World History provides the latitude to range widely across all aspects of human experience: economics, science, religion, philosophy, politics & law, military conflict, literature & the arts. The course will illuminate connections between our lives and those of our ancestors around the world. Students will uncover patterns of behavior, identify historical trends and themes, explore historical movements and concepts. Students will refine their ability to read for comprehension and critical analysis; summarize, categorize, compare, and evaluate information; write clearly and convincingly; express facts and opinions orally; and use technology appropriately to present information.

US HIST:                   US History 

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               11

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course provides a one-year survey of American history from the Colonial Period and the American Revolution to the present day, with an emphasis on the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  Using the textbook and primary documents and current events, students learn about the various political, social, religious, and economic developments that have shaped and continue to shape the United States to this day. Writing and critical thinking are emphasized as integral ways of understanding how the past relates to the present and future. 

US HIST DC:            US History (Dual Credit) 

Pre-Requisite:             Passing TSI Scores: Reading 351, Writing 363 and a “4” on the essay or “5” on essay can stand alone.

Grade Level:               11                                                                                                       

1 credit (2 semesters)

(HIST 1301) United States History (Fall)

A survey of the significant diplomatic, economic, political, and social developments in the United States from the colonial period through the Civil War and reconstruction. May be taken in fulfillment of the statutory requirements for a baccalaureate degree.

(HIST 1302) United States History (Spring)

A survey of the significant diplomatic, economic, political, and social developments in the United States since reconstruction. May be taken in fulfillment of the statutory requirements for a baccalaureate degree.

GOVT:                       Government

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               12                                                                                                       

.5 credit (1 semesters)

This course is viewed as a source of civic literacy. We survey the principles, philosophies, practices and institutions that comprise the United States system of government and law.  Students are expected to apply knowledge gained in previous social studies courses to pursue deeper understanding of American government.  Contemporary issues will frame conversations about the Constitution, the courts, legislative and executive branches, federalism, and a review of major political philosophies around the world.  Emphasis is also given to the dynamics of political decision-making and the degree to which citizens participate in political processes and our civil liberties. 

GOVT-DC:                Introductory American Government (Dual Credit) POLS 2305

Pre-Requisite:             Passing TSI Scores: Reading 351, Writing 363 and a “4” on the essay or “5” on essay can stand alone.

Grade Level:               12                                                                               

.5 credit (1 semester)

An examination of the United States political system, including its intellectual foundations and the design of the Constitution. Includes study of the major institutional factors, the impact of interest groups and the media, and the processes of policy-making. May be taken in fulfillment of statutory requirements for a baccalaureate degree.

ECON:                       Economics

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:               12

.5 credit (1 semester)

This course provides a one-semester study of Economics in which students learn the fundamental concepts of micro-, macro-, and international economics and apply them in intellectually and engaging ways.  Students will gain a general understanding of economics and economic philosophy that will enable them to assess and evaluate the U.S. economy and their personal finance more successfully.  Essay writing, critical thinking, active reading and note taking will be emphasized as important means for fully participating in the class.

AP ECON:                 AP Macro Economics

Pre-Requisite:              GPA of 3.5 or higher

Grade Level:               12

.5 credit (1 semester)

AP Macroeconomics is an introductory college-level course that focuses on the principles that apply to an economic system as a whole. The course places emphasis on the study of national income and price-level determination; it also develops students' familiarity with economic performance measures, the financial sector, stabilization policies, economic growth, and international economics. Students learn to use graphs, charts, and data to analyze, describe, and explain economic concepts.

 

RELIGION

 EXP FAITH:             Exploring Christian Faith 

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9 or 10                                                                                                

1 credit (2 semesters)

This is the 9th grade portion of students' theology journey while at Concordia.  Each of the 10-12th grade future topics are introduced in a welcoming, supportive atmosphere.  Topics include God, the Bible, prayer, self, work, service and community.  No previous experience is needed.

BIBLE:                      The Bible

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:               10

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course goes through the entire Bible story from Genesis to Revelation, focusing on major characters and events, with the expressed focus of recognizing that the Bible story is our story. It also covers the reliability of scripture, the practice of hermeneutics, and how to lead a Bible study. 

WRD RELIG:           World Religions 

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               11                                                                                                       

1 credit (2 semesters)

World Religions is an introduction to the nature of religion, as well as the origin, teachings, spread, and influence of major living religions. Students will investigate their own philosophy or religion, develop their understanding of religion through comparison, and work toward respectful articulation of their beliefs in relation to the beliefs of others.

CHRIST LDR:          Christian Leaders

Pre-Requisite:             None 

Grade Level:               12                                                                                                       

1 credit (2 semesters)

This course is our capstone theology class designed to help students dive deep into who they are, what it means to be a leader, and how to live out the Christian life beyond High School. 

 

FINE ARTS

ART I:                        Art I 

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11, or 12                                                                                               

.5 credit (per semester)

This course teaches students the fundamentals of art; line, space, form, shape, texture, color, and value.

 ART II:                      Art II 

Pre-Requisite:             Art I 

Grade Level:               10, 11 or 12                                                                                                    

.5 credit (per semester)

This course allows students to expand upon the fundaments of art by exploring different major art techniques at a self-paced level. 

BAND:                       Band

Pre-Requisite:             None 

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                                

.5 credit (per semester)

Band is based upon the introduction, development, and refinement of instrumental technique and musical skills in an ensemble setting. Students will develop their abilities primarily through individual and ensemble practice of repertoire. Students will perform as a full ensemble, and have the options of solo or small group performances.

CHOIR:                     Choir

Pre-Requisite:             None 

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                                

.5 credit (per semester)

Choir develops students in vocal technique, musicianship, and Christian servant leadership in a variety of settings and experiences. Students will learn to use their voices with care and exuberance, as gifts from God to serve Him and His kingdom.

DRAMA:                   Drama

Pre-Requisite:             None 

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                                

.5 credit (per semester)

This fine arts course is open to all grade levels and encourages creative problem-solving, flexibility, vocal inflection and projection, oral reading, purposeful movement, teamwork and the opportunity to contribute to the One Act, Saturday Tournament Team and/or Musical as an actor or theatre technician.

 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE

 SPAN I:                      Spanish I

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

1 credit (2 semesters)

This introductory course is designed for students with little or no previous study of Spanish. Some students in class might have studied Spanish in middle school, but have not grasped some of the important structures of the language. This course teaches basic language patterns and vocabulary. Repetition and comprehensible input are important components of this course. Focus is on all four language skills listening, speaking, reading and writing. Culture is an integral part of the course and is introduced through the use of media, games, adapted readings and class discussions. 

SPAN II:                    Spanish II

Pre-Requisite:             Spanish I

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

1 credit (2 semesters)

Students continue to further develop and improve listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Emphasis is placed on comprehension of Spanish, as well as, reading and writing practice in the target language using a variety of activities incorporating familiar vocabulary and structures. Supplementary materials are introduced to enhance language use.
 

SPAN III:                   Spanish III

Pre-Requisite:             Spanish I & II

Grade Level:               10, 11 or 12                                                                            

1 credit (2 semesters)

Students continue to develop and increase their language acquisition in Spanish through the study of language structures in cultural and historical contexts. Students will be engaged in a study of language structures and vocabulary through reading, listening, speaking, and writing activities. Aspects of contemporary Spanish and Hispanic cultures are emphasized in this class. Students will be assessed using a variety of methods including: oral and written tests and quizzes, classroom discussions and interactive activities, oral/aural assignments, presentations, dialogues, short compositions, and other displays

 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

ATHLETICS :          Athletics

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (per sport)

This course focuses on physical activity for athletic sports teams.  Sports include Baseball, Basketball, Cheer, Cross Country, Dance, Equestrian, Football, Golf, Soccer, Softball, Swimming, Track & Volleyball.

PHYS FIT:                Foundations of Physical Fitness

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12

.5 credit (per semester)

This course is designed to give students the opportunity to learn fitness concepts and conditioning techniques used for obtaining optimal physical fitness. Students will benefit from comprehensive

weight training and cardiorespiratory endurance activities. Students will learn the basic fundamentals of strength training, aerobic training, and overall fitness training and conditioning. Course includes both lecture and activity sessions. Students will be empowered to make wise choices, meet challenges, and develop positive behaviors in fitness, wellness, and movement activity for a lifetime.

 

SPEECH

COMP SPEAK:        Competitive Speaking

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (1 semester)

Competitive Speaking seeks to serve our students and their diverse interests and abilities within the realm of competitive speaking through organizations such as NSDA and TFA. This will include an introduction to and further development of persuasive speaking and argumentation. They will learn about argument structure, speech structure, logic, and rules specific to each debate event. They will also be expected to be aware of current events and will become comfortable speaking at a moment’s notice.

This course will also serve as an introduction and further development of skills suited to “individual events” in competitive speaking. Students will learn and become familiar with conventions of each event and develop their creative rendering of dramatic and/or comedic materials. Students will be expected to acquire and develop pieces for competition.

 DEBATE:                  Debate

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (1 semester)

Debate is an introduction to persuasive speaking and argumentation. Students will be expected to learn, research, and speak in an organized and persistent manner. They will learn about types of arguments, how to organize their thoughts in arguments and cases in addition to learning to listen for fallacies in the arguments of others. They will also be expected to be aware of current events and will become comfortable speaking at a moment’s notice.

 SPEECH:                   Speech

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (1 semester)

This high school requirement empowers students to consider, practice and construct ethical presentations that use research-based techniques and skills to illustrate themselves and information in the most effective light.

 SPEECH-DC:           Communications (Dual Credit)

Pre-Requisite:             Passing TSI Scores: Reading 351, Writing 363 and a “4” on the essay or “5” on essay can stand alone.

Grade Level:               11 or 12                                                                                  

.5 credit (1 semester)

This course fulfills a college requirement in many majors and a high school elective exploring conflict, factors related to productivity, family, friend and coworker relationships, intrapersonal communication, nonverbal behavior, listening techniques, group work, brainstorming and diversity.

SPEAK:                     Speaking 201

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12

.5 credit (1 semester)

Speaking 201 is an exploration of various types of live communication. Students will explore more specialized speaking formats than and dig a little deeper into areas covered in classes like Speech, Debate, or Drama. Such areas include non-verbal communication, Robert’s Rules of Order, and improvisation.

PUB SPEAK:            Public Speaking (Dual Credit)

Pre-Requisite:             Passing TSI Scores: Reading 351, Writing 363 and a “4” on the essay or “5” on essay can stand alone.

Grade Level:               11 or 12                                                                      

.5 credit (1 semester)

This course fulfills a high school and college requirement simultaneously, digging into presentation aids, mediated communication, delivery techniques, audience analysis, language, outlining and research.

 

ELECTIVES

 CHAPEL:                  Chapel/Praise Band

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (1 semester)

This course is especially for CHS Praise Band musicians (all grades!) interested in Chapel leadership using the voice, guitar, piano, drums or other instruments.  No prior music experience is needed.  Students (all grades) interested in creating Chapel PowerPoint slides, working with sound and microphones, procession and other set-up work, prayer ministry, Scripture reading and/or hospitality to speakers may seek permission to join the class.

 CRE WRIT:              Creative Writing

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (1 semester)

Creative Writing provides a place for an exploration of language, writing, and the creative process. Students will learn about the technical aspects, practices, and structures of various forms of writing; practice writing in various forms, media, and genre; develop habits and disciplines to make their own writing easier and more refined.

MEDICAL:               Introduction to Medical Professions

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

.5 credit (1 semester)

This course exposes students to a variety of care-giving careers that require an understanding in research-based compassionate services for humans and animals through the study of infection prevention, CPR, other life-extending skills, first aid procedures, hygiene, and using technologies including the sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.

 OFFC AIDE:             Office Aide

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:              11 or 12

.25 credit (per semester)

The duties will vary and may include running errands on campus, copying, faxing, filing, answering phones, organizing, and cleaning. Students must be cheerful, helpful, and teachable.

PHOTO:                     Photo/Video/Yearbook

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

1 credit (2 semesters)

This multifaceted course teaches students the basics of photography, videography, photo editing, video editing, composition, lighting, layout design, storyboarding, modeling, and also creates the schools yearbook.

PRIN ENG-CD:        Principles of Engineering (Dual Credit)

Pre-Requisite:             None

Grade Level:               9, 10, 11 or 12                                                                                    

1 credit (2 semesters)

This dual credit course will examine the engineering profession and ethics, utilize technical communication skills, develop familiarity with the engineering design process, and dig deeply into the differences between the various engineering disciplines.  The formal description of the course reads: “An introduction to the engineering profession with emphasis on technical communication and team-based engineering design.”

PSYCH 1301:             Psychology (Dual Credit)

Pre-Requisite:              Passing TSI Scores: Reading 351, Writing 363 and a “4” on the essay or “5” on essay can stand alone.

Grade Level:               11 or 12

.5 credit (1 semester)

Students will develop Empirical and Quantitative Skills that illustrate an understanding of the techniques and methods of Psychology. They will also gain an understanding of social responsibility, which includes intercultural competence, knowledge of civic responsibility, and the ability to engage affectively in regional, national and global communities. Students will demonstrate, via this learning, an understanding of the factors which affect human interactions and relationships. Communication skills and critical thinking skills will also be applied throughout class via lecture, discussion and analysis. 

SOCIOLOGY:          Sociology

Pre-Requisite:              None

Grade Level:               11 or 12

.5 credit (1 semester)

Sociology is an important, exciting course because it enables students to learn more about themselves and in relation to others as contributing members of society. The study of socio-economic stratification is critical to understanding human motivation in the development of our own cultural values. In so doing, our lives are enriched as we understand ourselves better and those we interact with.